Contact Improvisation is a form of improvised dancing that has been developing internationally since 1972. It involves the exploration of one's body in relationship to others by using the fundamentals of sharing weight, touch, and movement awareness.
American dancer and choreographer Steve Paxton originated Contact Improvisation, drawing from his past training in aikido, a martial art form, to explore and push boundaries with his colleagues and students to develop this new practice. Contact Improvisation plays with the artistry of falling off balance, counterbalance, finding the shelves of the body, learning the mechanics of the body in order to handle someone else's weight or be lifted, breathing techniques, and can involve the art of getting to know your partner past the physical point through the physicality.
Steve Paxton, along with many other pioneers such as Nancy Stark Smith, Danny Lepkoff, Lisa Nelson, Karen Nelson, Nita Little, Andrew Harwood, and Ray Chung, thus participated in creating an "art-sport", oscillating between different emphases depending on the moments and personalities who practice it:
- experimental dance (practice-based research organized in dance laboratories),
- theatrical form (improvised performances, lectures-demonstrations...),
- educational tool (classical training for professional and non-professional dancers in improvisation and in partnering)
- social dancing (through informal gatherings known as jams)
- awareness practice...
Formally, Contact Improvisation is a movement improvisation that is explored with another being. According to one of its first practitioners, Nancy Stark Smith, it « resembles other familiar duet forms, such as the embrace, wrestling, surfing, martial arts, and the jitterbug, encompassing a wide range of movement from stillness to highly athletic. »
Various definitions establish in their own ways what was at stake in a Contact Improvisation duo. Steve Paxton proposed the following in 1979:
« The exigencies of the form dictate a mode of movement which is relaxed, constantly aware and prepared, and onflowing. As a basic focus, the dancers remain in physical touch, mutually supportive and innovative, meditating upon the physical laws relating to their masses: gravity, momentum, inertia, and friction. They do not strive to achieve results, but rather, to meet the constantly changing physical reality with appropriate placement and energy. »
History of Contact Improvisation
From Magnesium to Contact Improvisations
In January 1972, Steve Paxton was in residence at Oberlin College on a tour with Grand Union, a collective where he collaborated among others with Yvonne Rainer and Trisha Brown. For several weeks, he offered Oberlin students two sets of practices:
- every morning at dawn, a "soft class" involving an exploration that he soon called the Small Dance, a form of meditation that is practiced standing, where attention is paid to postural adjustments and micro-weight transfers;
- and later in the day, rehearsals for a performance that he transmitted to a group of young men and whose score is to explore the extremes of movement and disorientation, from standing still to falling, rolling, colliding, and jumping in the air. For these rehearsals, Steve Paxton relied on his training in modern dance (he had danced in the companies of José Limón and Merce Cunningham), in Aikido and in gymnastics.
The meeting of these practices gives rise to Magnesium, a twenty-minute long piece where dancers perform on gym mats, jump and bump into each other, manipulate and cling to one another. "In this performance, dancers usually use their bodies as a whole, all parts are simultaneously unbalanced or thrown against another body or in the air." After about fifteen minutes, the dancers stop and start a "Small Dance" that concludes the performance.
In the Spring of 1972, Steve Paxton received a grant from Change, Inc which allowed him to invite dancers to work on the form he was evolving. He invited some colleagues from the Judson Dance Theater years like Barbara Dilley and Nancy Topf, Release Technique pioneer Mary Fulkerson, as well as students met during his teaching tours, including Nancy Stark Smith and Curt Siddall (from Oberlin College), Danny Lepkoff and David Woodberry (from the University of Rochester, where Mary Fulkerson was a teacher) and Nita Little (from Bennington College).
At the end of this week of residency, the group presented a performance which Steve Paxton named Contact Improvisations. They presented it in the form of a permanent afternoon practice for five days, at the John Weber Gallery in Manhattan, which at the same time showcased a film by George Manupelli, Dr. Chicago, and where spectators could come and go as the practice continues.
In North America
Following the first performance of Contact Improvisations in New York in 1972, the participants scattered to different parts of the United States but soon began to teach the practice. The syncopated, risky, raw and awkward style of the first performances gave place rather quickly to a variety of aesthetics within the form.
One of those aesthetics was the development of smooth, continuous, controlled flow of quality in the late 70s and early 80s, running parallel with the opposite trend of interest in conflict and unexpected responses, including previously avoided eye contact and direct hand contact. Says Nancy Stark Smith,
"Within the study of Contact Improvisation, the experience of flow was soon recognized and highlighted in our dancing. It became one of my favorite practices and I proceeded to "do flow" for many years-challenging it, testing it: could we flow through this pass? Could we squeak through that one, and keep going?"
Regardless of those aesthetic choices, the central characteristic of Contact Improvisation remains a focus on bodily awareness and physical reflexes rather than consciously controlled movements. One of the founders of the form, Daniel Lepkoff, comments that the “precedence of body experience first, and mindful cognition second, is an essential distinction between Contact Improvisation and other approaches to dance.” Another source affirms that the practice of Contact Improvisation involves “mindfulness, sensing and collecting information” as its core.
Languaging and observing
In 1975, the dancers working with Steve Paxton considered trademarking the term Contact Improvisation in order to control the teaching and practice of the dance form, consequently for reasons of safety. This idea was rejected in favor of establishing a forum for communication: this became the Contact Newsletter founded by Nancy Stark Smith, which evolved into the bi-annual journal Contact Quarterly which continues to be published by the non-profit organisation Contact Collaborations (incorporated in 1978). The journal, now co-edited by Nancy Stark Smith and Lisa Nelson, brings together different reflections of CI teachers and practitioners and cements an international community by equipping it with a communication organ, as well as hosting several other orders of reflections, including contemporary dancers and somatic practitioners writings. According to the magazine's statement,
"Contact Quarterly is the longest living, independent, artist-made, not-for-profit, reader-supported magazine devoted to the dancer's voice. Founded in 1975, Contact Quarterly (CQ) began as a forum for discussion of the emerging dance form Contact Improvisation. Serving as a meeting ground for a worldwide network of contact improvisers, CQ quickly grew to include writings and interviews on postmodern and contemporary experimental dance, somatic movement practices, improvisational dance, mixed-abilities dance, teaching methods, creative process, and performance."
While the development of Contact Improvisation has benefited greatly from Nancy Stark Smith and Lisa Nelson's editorial work to support the writings of dancers in their exploration of the form, it also owes much to the cameras of Steve Christiansen and then Lisa Nelson, who documented many moments of the work (especially in performance) and allow the contactors to observe themselves with meticulousness.
Development of Art-Sport
Since the mid-1970s, regular jams are present in most major cities in North America (New York City, Boston, San Francisco, Montreal ...). Other multi-day residential spaces (such as the Breitenbush Jam, which has existed since 1981) have been in existence since the late 1970s. Remembers dancer Mark Pritchard,
"The 1979 Country Jam was a first of its kind in the Contact world: over fifty people from the western United States and Canada came together for twelve days of non-structured existence, life and dance: neither a workshop, a conference or a seminar, but an improvisational gathering, with the sole aim of creating a space for dancing and living in flux. (...) Our days were without structure, except for meals: at the beginning, we planned to keep 90-minute slots for the courses, but the idea was quickly abandoned thanks to a system based on Supply and demand, in which each could suggest a topic to be dealt with and offer to lead a class."
These residential events (workshops, festivals, long jams) represent a parallel economy that invited the creation of dedicated spaces of practice, the model of which was provided very early by Earthdance, a residential center built in 1986 by a Boston community of dancers.
In Europe, Contact Improvisation was presented for the first time in 1973 (from June 25 to 28th) in an art gallery in Rome, L'Attico run by Fabio Sargentini. In the 1970s and 1980s, Steve Paxton and Lisa Nelson were regularly invited to the Dartington College of Arts in Great Britain (where early contacter Mary Fulkerson was part of the dance faculty) and the School for New Dance Development in Amsterdam, which served as transmission belts for Contact Improvisation in Europe.
Nancy Stark Smith was key to the organization of the first European Contact Improvisation Teachers Exchange, which have been organized since 1985 and hosted each year by a different European country.
Belgian dancer and choreographer Patricia Kuypers noted in 1999 that depending on the country and the individual, it has spread more or less rapidly in the world of dance or amateurs. In Belgium, where Steve Paxton had come since the 80s, invited by the Klapstuk and the Kaaitheater, few professional dancers regularly practised it and apart from certain outbreaks of fever in successful jams, it can not be said that Contact Improvisation left any lasting trace among professional dancers, except in a choreographed form.
In France, Contact Improvisation (sometimes called "danse-contact", as in French-speaking Canada) was introduced for the first time in 1978, where a Contact Improvisation course was given by Steve Paxton and Lisa Nelson during the musical festivities of Sainte Beaume:
"Didier Silhol, Mark Tompkins, Suzanne Cotto, Edith Veyron and Martine Muffat-Joly attended. Their enthusiasm brought them together, to explore together this new form of dance, to organize new courses by bringing back Steve Paxton, Lisa Nelson and by inviting other teachers such as Nancy Stark Smith. In 1980, they created the association Danse Contact Improvisation and began to teach themselves, mostly in pairs. "
Contact Improvisation is now practiced in most major cities of the French metropolis - Paris, Grenoble, Lyon, Marseille, Montpellier, Lille, Rennes all have at least one weekly jam - and is taught in many conservatories, Including the National Conservatory of Music and Dance of Paris.
In the world
The network of social practices or amateurs of Contact Improvisation has spread to all the continents except Antarctica, with a particularly intense presence in the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Finland, Russia, Israel, Japan, Australia, India, China and Malaysia, as evidenced by the regularity of the jams, festivals and weekly courses taught in these countries.
Spaces of practice
In June 1980, a highlight of the young history of Contact Improvisation was reached with the organization (by dancer and CI advocate Elizabeth Zimmer) of a conference of the American Dance Guild, Improvisation: dance considered as art-sport, mainly dedicated to Contact Improvisation, which had been referred to as an art-sport a few years earlier by Simone Forti. This conference introduced Contact Improvisation in the American academic world, and it is now taught in a majority of American universities offering a choreographic curriculum (New York University, Oberlin College, Bennington College, Smith College, Ohio State University, ...) as well as in many contemporary dance festivals (Jacob's Pillow, Bates Dance Festival ...).
In the mid-1970s, the term jam appeared to describe, like jazz jam sessions and milongas in tango, a space-time of free practice where dancers who do not know each other can meet and negotiate together their dance or observe the practice of their partners.
"Every week in dozens of cities that make up an international network, members of this Contact Improvisation "community of experience" meet for a few hours in a dance studio for a jam. This hybrid practice seems to me to work halfway between a bodily meditation, a psycho-kinesthetic therapy, a sports training, and a dance improvised session."
Multi-day residential courses led by a dancer or a group of dancers, or "conferences" or "festivals", where the days alternate between free practices, courses by guest artists, and debates regularly bring practitioners together.
Some have argued that this relaxed space of practice favoured Contact's inclusivity towards disabled movers:
"Unlike a structured workshop or a performance, the Contact jam setting allows for open-ended dancing, a mode particularly conducive to dancers with different abilities. For one thing, it a lot easier to rest or stop and talk with your partner. (...) More than any other genre of dance, Contact Improvisation has nurtured and embraced dancing that can integrate multiple abilities and limitations. In fact, many of the most renowned nondisabled Contact practitioners (including Steve Paxton), spend a lot of time teaching, facilitating and dancing with disabled communities."
Women have expressed feeling uncomfortable on the dance floor and in the community, especially with men who overstep intimacy, bringing unwanted sexual energy into the connection. As a result, some people have decided to organize #MeToo disruptions of jams. To address sexual harassment issues, many jams are establishing jam guidelines and instigating other measures.
Contact Improvisation involves technical aspects or "moves" that support the duets and create a recognizable style of movements: shoulder and hip lifts, head-to-head improvisation, table-top position (being on all fours, supporting the weight of the partner on the back), surfing (rolling on the floor, being "surfed by" the partner), Aikido rolls, etc.
But these are conceived of as the means to an end, which can be described as the dialogue of sensations of weight and touch between partners:
"The body in CI is accordingly not merely a physical body whose weight and momentum are subject to natural laws of gravity and motion, but a responsive, experiencing body. Here it must be emphasized that despite the use of the term “inward focus” in Novack’s account, the cultivation of kinaesthetic awareness cannot be equated with an “introspective” preoccupation with private sensations; rather, the accent lies on sensing-through the responsive body, combining both “internal awareness” and “responsiveness to another”."
Steve Paxton insisted on this aspect with the concept of interior techniques involving in the dance practice a training of perception, resting on investigations based on the sciences of the senses (physiology, experimental and ecological psychology, anatomy, behaviour sciences).
Lisa Nelson, in that regard, occupied a special place in the effervescence of the development of CI. Taking, from time to time, distance with the dance, she watched a lot, through the eye of the camera, and, she also pursued a personal research on the collaboration between the senses, in particular on the organization of kinaesthesia in relation to the way in which vision works (a practice later known as the Tuning Scores). As Patricia Kuypers remarked, "her staggered gaze nourished the maturation of the CI, developing analysis of the perceptual system and revealing specific questions about how improvisation works.".
The Round Robin
The "Round Robin" is the most frequent structure of performances, this happens where a couple of duos, trios, solos, etc. arrive in the center of a supported circle of other dancers, who can at any time integrate the couples and replace one of the two dancers, and so on. Dancers are dressed casually (sweat pants, T-shirts...) and performances can happen in many venues, including theaters, bookstores, galleries. The duration of the concerts can go from 20 minutes to possibly 6 hours.
Central to the poetics of the form is a desire to create a non-hierarchical way of developing the material, based on the simple exchange of weight and touch between partners improvising together. This stance has been argued to reflect the counter-cultural context in which Contact Improvisation was developed (aftermath of the 1960s Vietnam War and Hippie movement).
In the 1990s, Nancy Stark Smith, one of the most active propagators of Contact Improvisation internationally and editor of Contact Quarterly, developed a practice out of her teachings: the Underscore, a score serving as a descriptive and prescriptive base for the practice of group improvisations. In this practice, vocabulary is tailored to fit the specific experiences of dancers and benefits from Nancy Stark Smith enmeshment with Contact Improvisation.
"As a teacher of Contact Improvisation, she had observed that particular warm-up exercises and movement activities were helpful in bringing dancers to a state of body-mind preparedness for engaging in a Contact duet. The Underscore is a scored collection of those exercises and activities, complete with pictographs that represent each phase and subphase of its progression."
Some moments of the practice clearly refer to activities explored in the practice of Contact:
- "Bonding with the earth" thus refers (in part) to the experience of the Small Dance
- "Engagement" to the commitment that can be involved in a Contact duet
- "Skinesphere", the space beneath the skin (as opposed to the kinesphere, which is the space surrounding the body), refers to the inward focus involved in some somatic preparations for the practice of Contact
Contact Improvisation and contemporary dance
Similar simultaneous explorations
The explorations envisaged in the first moments of Contact Improvisation are not specific to the collective led by Steve Paxton. Many other forms of dance had also experimented with weight, touch and improvisation and examples abound in the 1960s of dancers who practice something similar, but not as systematic as Contact Improvisation, including Trisha Brown, Grand Union, Daniel Nagrin's Workgroup, Anna Halprin 's San Francisco Dancers' Workshop, Julian Beck and Judith Malina's Living Theater or Carolee Schneeman's Meat Joy (1964).
Simone Forti for instance had developed Huddle in the 1960s: a dance in which six to seven dancers were invited to form together an agglutinated mass of which one by one they detached themselves to gradually reintegrate it, thus testing the tactile, olfactory and weight sensations.
As a resource for movement
Many contemporary choreographers today use Contact Improvisation as a significant resource for movement, as is the case with choreographers Bill T. Jones, Wim Vandekeybus or Antonija Livingstone, or In the companies Punchdrunk (especially in their famous site-specific 2011 production Sleep No More) and DV8 Physical Theater.
References to Contact Improvisation vary: some are inspired by the qualities of the duet styles involving a specific use of touch, while others insist on the acrobatic dimension of Contact Improvisation and put forward situations of risk as means of reaching adrenalized states of performance. Many also perpetuate the work of sensation put forward by Contact Improvisation while making way for an interrogation on the relations between the genders that Contact Improvisation tends rather to make disappear behind an equality advocated but not always enforced. Companies like DV8 and The Cholmondeleys have thus produced choreographies based on a similar anti-mechanistic approach to that of Contact Improvisation, coupling it with interrogations on gendered roles." Similarly, a number of early contactors - such as Keith Hennesy, Ishmael Houston-Jones, Bill T. Jones and his partner Arnie Zane - participated in the struggles for LGBT rights in the wake of the AIDS crisis of the 1980s.
In Europe in particular, many improvisers were influenced by Contact Improvisation, especially from the 1980s, such as João Fiadeiro from the Portuguese New Dance, British improvisers Julyen Hamilton, Kirstie Simson, Charlie Morrissey, as well as North American artists who emigrated to Europe like Benoît Lachambre, Mark Tompkins and Meg Stuart.
Thus Meg Stuart considers her lineage to be in the experimental approach to dance proposed in the early days of Contact Improvisation history:
"If I could go back in dance history I would put myself at Oberlin College in 1972, crashing into Steve Paxton and his students as we performed Magnesium. I have always been passionate about Contact Improvisation. It is rare that something experimental and radical is proposed in a dance studio, and out of that research a language, a community, a world develops. Contact Is not defined as "Paxton's technique", it's an open field, a living form."
- Steve Paxton
- Nancy Stark Smith
- Lisa Nelson
- Grand Union
- dance improvisation
- Judson Dance Theater
- Choreographic technique
- List of dance style categories
- Banes, Sally (1987). Terpischore in sneakers: postmodern dance. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
- Spain, Kent De (2014-07-02). Landscape of the Now: A Topography of Movement Improvisation. OUP USA. ISBN 9780199988266.
- Banes, Sally (2011-03-01). Terpsichore in Sneakers: Post-Modern Dance. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 9780819571809.
- Cohen, Selma Jeanne; Matheson, Katy, eds. (1992-12-01). Dance As a Theatre Art: Source Readings in Dance History from 1581 to the Present (2nd ed.). Princeton Book Company. pp. 222. ISBN 9780871271730.
- Blom, Lynne Anne; Chaplin, L. Tarin (1988-12-15). The Moment of Movement: Dance Improvisation (1st ed.). Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 9780822954057.
- Novack, Cynthia Jean., Sharing the dance, Univ. Of Wisconsin Press, 1 January 1990 ( ISBN 0299124444, OCLC 925081573, read online ), chapters 2 and 3.
- Kamenetz, Anya (3 December 2002). "On balance". The Village Voice. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- Nancy Stark Smith et David Koteen (2013), Caught Falling. The Confluence of Contact Improvisation, Nancy Stark Smith, and Other Moving Ideas, Contact Editions, p. xii
- Steve Paxton, "A Definition", Contact Quarterly, Winter 1979, p. 26.
- Steve Paxton, " Why Standing? ", Contact Quarterly, 2015
- "Contact Editions dance and somatics books & dvds". contactquarterly.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- Hennessy, Keith. "The Experiment Called Contact Improvisation - FoundSF". www.foundsf.org. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- Novack, 1990 op cit p. 156-8.
- Nancy Stark Smith, "Back in time", Contact Quarterly, vol.11/1, Winter 86, p. 3
- Novack, 1990 op cit p. 152
- Lepkoff, Daniel (Winter–Spring 2000). "Contact Improvisation". Contact Quarterly: 62.
- Kaltenbrunner, Thomas (1998). Contact Improvisation:Moving, Dancing, Interaction. Aachen (Germany): Meyer & Meyer. p. 93.
- Smith, Nancy (1998). "A question of copyright - some history". Contact Quarterly: A Vehicle for Moving Ideas. 23 (1): 35.
- "About Us". Contact Collaborations. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Mark Pritchard, "Country Jam", Contact Quarterly, vol. 5 (1), 1979, P. 36
- "Earthdance survives changing vision, changing times". Daily Hampshire Gazette. 1996.
- L'attico di Fabio Sargentini. 1966-1978. Catalogo della mostra (in Italian and English). Mondadori Electa. p. 128. ISBN 9788837079574.
- "ECITE.org". www.ecite.org. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
- Patricia Kuypers, Nouvelles de danse, Vol. 38-39, Bruxelles, 1999
- "Le Laboratoire du GESTE". www.laboratoiredugeste.com(in French). Retrieved 2017-03-08.
Novack, Cynthia J. (1990-08-15). Sharing the Dance: Contact Improvisation and American Culture. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 99. ISBN 9780299124441.
improvisation dance as art sport.
- Deva Davina, "Some notes of a contacter ethnographer", Nouvelles de danse, Vol. 38-39, Bruxelles, 1999, p. 101
- Albright, Ann Cooper; Gere, David (2003-10-24). Taken by Surprise: A Dance Improvisation Reader. Wesleyan University Press. p. 210. ISBN 9780819566485.
- Yardley, Brooks. "Respecting Boundaries/Coexisting Genders: A Zine about Women's Experiences of Feeling Unsafe in Contact Improv". Contact Improvisation Newsletter. 42.2 (Summer/Fall 2017). Retrieved 14 October2019.
- Harrist, Cookie. "#MeToo DISRUPTION at the 2018 West Coast Contact Improvisation Jam" (PDF). Contact Quarterly. 44.1 (Winter/Spring 2019): 50. Retrieved 14 October2019.
- Pierce, Benjamin. "A Compendium of Contact Improvisation Jam Guidelines and related material from around the world". Retrieved 14 October 2019.
- Behnke, Elizabeth A. (2003-01-01). "Contact Improvisation and the Lived World". Studia Phaenomenologica. 3(Special): 39–61. doi:10.7761/SP.3.S1.39.
- Steve Paxton (2006). "Training perception" (PDF).
- Turner, Robert (2010-08-25). "Steve Paxton's "Interior Techniques": Contact Improvisation and Political Power". TDR/The Drama Review. 54 (3): 123–135. doi:10.1162/DRAM_a_00007. ISSN 1054-2043.
- Paxton, Steve (1975-01-01). "Contact Improvisation". The Drama Review: TDR. 19 (1): 40–42. doi:10.2307/1144967. JSTOR 1144967.
- NSS. "Underscore". Nancy Stark Smith. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
- Albright, Ann Cooper (2013-11-20). Engaging Bodies: The Politics and Poetics of Corporeality. Wesleyan University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780819574121.
- Smith, Nancy Start; Koteen, David; Smith, Nancy Stark (2008-01-01). Caught Falling (PDF). Northampton, MA: Contact Quarterly. pp. 91 sq. ISBN 9780937645093.
- Buckwalter, Melinda (2010-12-16). Composing while Dancing: An Improviser's Companion (1 ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780299248147.
- Olsen, Andrea (2014-01-10). The Place of Dance: A Somatic Guide to Dancing and Dance Making. Wesleyan University Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780819574060.
- Gehm, Sabine; Husemann, Pirkko; Wilcke, Katharina von (2017-03-29). Knowledge in Motion: Perspectives of Artistic and Scientific Research in Dance. transcript Verlag. p. 150. ISBN 9783839408094.
- "Art Through Time: A Global View - Meat Joy". learner.org. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- "Huddle - High Line Art". art.thehighline.org. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- Kourlas, Gia (2011-09-06). "'Sleep No More' Is Theater Embedded With Dancers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- "DV8- Physical Theatre Company". prezi.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- Martha, Bremser; Lorna, Sanders (2011-01-01). Fifty contemporary choreographers. Routledge. ISBN 9781136828324. OCLC 857382034.
- Gamble, Sarah (2004-11-23). The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism. Routledge. ISBN 9781134545629.
- "Our Own AIDS Time: Keith Hennessy and Ishmael Houston-Jones in Conversation". Open Space. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- Julyen Hamilton, " Contact Improvisation was a question of my generation ," Nouvelles de danse, vol. 38-39 1999, P. 198
- "Teaching and research". www.idamarktompkins.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- "Meg Stuart/Damaged Goods & EIRA | New York Live Arts". New York Live Arts. Retrieved 2017-03-08.
- Peeters, Meg Stuart Jeroen (2011-01-02). Meg Stuart - Are We Here Yet?. Presses Du Reel. p. 82. ISBN 9782840663546.